Germany, Istanbul, Italy, Portugal and UK

CARMONA, CTH, ENEL, Imperial College,INETI, New University of Lisboa, Sabanci Universitesi, SD, TUHH, UN


Nuno Lapa
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Departamento de Ciências e Tecnologia da Biomassa
Ed. Departamental Piso 3, gab. 362
Campus de Caparica
2829-516 Caparica

T. +35 121 294 854 3



The project addressed the issues related to the whole chain of fuel supply for co-firing, optimizing combustion process involving multi-fuels, and ways of optimizing its economic and environmental consequences, in order to overcome the above mentioned barriers. The co-firing tests were carried out using fluidized beds.

The specific objectives of the project were as follows:

  1. Evaluation of the biomass resources and wastes for 3 countries: Portugal, Italy and Turkey.

  2. Identification of techno-economic barriers to the utilization of biomass etc. as energy sources.

  3. The analysis of adequate fuel preparation systems to achieve synergy in fuel mixes.

  4. Characterization of the wastes to determine their potential for synergy in fuel mixes to be prepared with a particular attention given to reactivity, ash composition and ash fusion point.

  5. The understanding of the combustion of fuel mixes in fluidized beds with the aim of determining the limits of optimized synergy for efficiency. 

  6. Understanding of ash behavior during the combustion to determine synergy required in the fuel mix preparation to minimize the tendency to slagging and fouling.

  7. Determination of the levels of the pollutants resulting from the co-firing system and definition of conditions for synergy of different components in the fuel.

  8. The analysis of ashes produced during co-firing with the aim of their re-utilization.

  9. The socio-economic and environmental impacts of the co-firing technology.


The goal was to understand the synergy effects on the co-combustion of biomass and non-hazardous solid wastes in pilot and industrial fluidized-bed reactors in order to promote the positive effects and decrease the negative effects. To study the effect on furnace performance, exhaustion gas quality and ashes quality and the environmental and socio-economic aspects of the co-combustion process of coal, biomass and non-hazardous wastes.

BUDGET: € 2.752.596

A PhD fellowship was attributed by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia


Positive synergy effects were obtained from the co-combustion of coal, biomass and wastes. Negative synergy effects may occur when high percentages of biomass are used. The ashes produced were successfully solidified/stabilized and used in the production of mortars and concretes with similar performances to reference materials.

Contact us


Department of Materials Engineering
Kasteelpark Arenberg 44
3001 Leuven, Belgium